After the death of Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible in 1584, Boris Godunov governed from the backround during the 13-year reign of the borderline-retarded Tsar Feodor Ivanovich, and then for almost seven years in his own name. But the effects of his security forces on Russian society took their toll. After Godunov's death, Vasili Shuisky became tsar, then imposter princes were provide by rivals, and False Dmitris and other contenders fueled the flames. Enemies were brutally tortured and removed from the world altogether. At the same time the Russian Patriarchate was created with Job the first patriarch. The invasion of Poland added to the miseries of Russia, until the invaders were defeated. This Era of Upheavals, also known in Russian history as the Time of Troubles, came to a close only when Mikhail Romanov was crowned tsar in 1613. Daniel H. Shubin has translated and published several books on Russian history, philosophy and religion.