Endocrine Biomarkers: Clinical Aspects and Laboratory Determination covers all the pre-analytical variables that can affect test results, both in the clinic and laboratory. Biomarkers of endocrine and bone diseases are discussed from both clinical and laboratory perspectives, and the ... authors elaborate on the teamwork-based app+roach between the clinician and the laboratory professional in the diagnosis and management of endocrine and bone disorders. Discussions include test utilization, laboratory measurement methods, harmonization and standardization, interpretation of results, and reference intervals. Each chapter ends with a discussion of one or two relevant cases with shared opinions from both a clinician and a clinical chemist. Each chapter also includes a summary box outlining key points and common pitfalls in the use of specific disease biomarkers and tests.Ticks of Trinidad and Tobago: An Overview explores tick species prevalent in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T), their distribution, associated pathogens, their effects on the host, and control methods. The book also reviews the basic biology of ticks. Ticks are known to parasitize a wide range of hosts including mammals, reptiles and birds. These parasites are of veterinary and public health significance since they are responsible for the spread of a number of pathogens to humans and animals. Worldwide, ticks are responsible for billions of dollars in losses in the livestock industry annually due to the effects of these pathogens. Based on review of the literature from more than five decades, twenty-three species of both hard and soft tick have been discovered on the twin-island republic with a greater number of species in Trinidad. Tick genera observed and recorded included Argas, Ornithodoros, Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis, Ixodes, and Rhipicephalus species. The tick species found in Trinidad and Tobago parasitize both wild and domestic species. Hosts include bats, fowl, equids, wild and domestic ruminants, birds, rodents, marsupials, and a variety of reptiles such as toads, tortoises, and snakes. Based on geographical location, most tick species discovered in T&T have also been recorded in other Caribbean islands in the archipelago, North, Central and South America. Both soft and hard tick species found in T&T have also been implicated in a number of blood-borne pathogens including Borrelia, Ehrlichia, Babesia, Hepatozoon, Rickettsia, and Anaplasma.
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