The State of the World's Refugees 2000

- Fifty Years of Humanitarian Action

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The State of the World's Refugees 2000
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Format:
Bog, paperback
Udgivelsesdato:
09-11-2000
Sprog:
Engelsk
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Small scale features and processes occurring at nanometer and femtosecond scales have a profound impact on what happens at a larger scale and over an extensive period of time. The primary objective of this volume is to reflect the state-of-the-art in multiscale mathematics, modeling, and simulations and to address the following barriers: What is the information that needs to be transferred from one model or scale to another and what physical principles must besatisfied during the transfer of information? What are the optimal ways to achieve such transfer of information? How can variability of physical parameters at multiple scales be quantified and how can it be accounted for to ensure design robustness?The multiscale approaches in space and time presented in this volume are grouped into two main categories: information-passing and concurrent. In the concurrent approaches various scales are simultaneously resolved, whereas in the information-passing methods the fine scale is modeled and its gross response is infused into the continuum scale. The issue of reliability of multiscale modeling and simulation tools which focus on a hierarchy of multiscale models and an a posteriori model of errorestimation including uncertainty quantification, is discussed in several chapters. Component software that can be effectively combined to address a wide range of multiscale simulations is also described. Applications range from advanced materials to nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), biologicalsystems, and nanoporous catalysts where physical phenomena operates across 12 orders of magnitude in time scales and 10 orders of magnitude in spatial scales.This volume is a valuable reference book for scientists, engineers and graduate students practicing in traditional engineering and science disciplines as well as in emerging fields of nanotechnology, biotechnology, microelectronics and energy.UNHCR - the world's leading refugee organization - examines the major refugee crises of the last 50 years and the changing nature of international responses to the problem of forced displacement.Refugees and other displaced people are the victims of events beyond their control: persecution, armed conflict, and human rights violations. Increasingly, they are also recognized as an important factor affecting both national security and world politics. With over a million people forced to flee their homes in Kosovo, East Timor, and Chechnya in 1999 alone, it is clear that the problem of forced human displacement will remain a major concern of the international community in the 21st century. This book describes the development of international refugee law and the establishment of institutions devoted to the protection of refugees and other displaced people. It traces the major crises in which UNHCR has been involved since its establishment 50 years ago. Beginning with the mass displacement in Europe after the Second World War, the book addresses the flight of refugees from Hungary in 1956, crises associated with process of decolonization in Africa, the Bangladesh refugee emergencyin 1971, the sustained exodus from Indochina which began in the 1970s, and the large outflows resulting from the protracted wars of the 1980s in Afghanistan, the Horn of Africa, and Central America.Looking at the challenges of the 1990s, the book examines the popular shifts in the former Soviet region, the Kurdish exodus from northern Iraq following the Gulf war, the increasingly restrictive asylum policies in Europe and North America, and the recent crises in the Balkans, the Great Lakes region of Africa, East Timor, and the Caucasus. In this timely and important publication, UNHCR emphasizes the need to find lasting solutions to problems of forced displacement. Without human security, it argues, there can be no peace and stability.

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Udgivelsesdato:
09-11-2000
ISBN13:
9780199241064
Vægt:
695 g
Dybde:
20 mm
Bredde:
189 mm
Højde:
246 mm
Format:
Paperback
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    This volume is intended as a reference book for scientists, engineers and graduate students practicing in traditional engineering and science disciplines as well as in emerging fields of nanotechnology, biotechnology, microelectronics and energy.This is an analysis of the international community's efforts to protect and assist refugees in the fifty years since the creation of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). illustrations, maps, tables

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