Excerpt from The Marine Engineer and Naval Architect, Vol. 46: May, 1923
The results are given in Table III and show considerable variation in proportionality limit, elongation, and reduction of area. The heat treatment of nickel steel forgings is liable to produce in them st... rains of extreme severity. The exact nature of the strains it is not easy to determine. Were it only a question of simple expansion or contraction with vary ing temperature, the sudden cooling of the outer surface while the core is still bot will put that surface for the moment int-o a state of tension which the subsequent contraction of the core would reverse, and ultimately there would be compression strain on the surface and tensile strain in the interior. The action, however, is complicated by the changes of volume at recalcsccnce points, first beneath the cooled surface and then gradually farther in, and varying strains and stresses are set up in all parts of the pinion. Heavy stresses may thus come upon some portion of the steel when it is at such a temperature as to be in a brittle condition and result in a crack or in per manent injury to the steel.
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