Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution results from land runoff, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, drainage, seepage or hydrologic modification. The term "nonpoint source" is defined to mean any source of water pollution that does not meet the legal definition of "point source" from a specific origin. It is caused by rainfall or snowmelt moving over and through the ground. As the runoff moves, it picks up and carries away natural and human-made pollutants, including excess fertilizers and pesticides from agriculture, chemicals from industrial processes and mining, and toxic microbes from animal or other waste. These are finally deposited into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters and ground waters, resulting in harmful effects on drinking water supplies, recreation, fisheries and wildlife.This book presents a synthesis of knowledge about, and responses to, nonpoint source pollution through two key themes: the need for technical and policy solutions that meet triplebottom-line sustainability (economic, social, and environmental) and support for effective planning that enhances food and water security for a growing human population. It holistically evaluates the status of the problem of and solutions to NPS internationally by reviewing the latest literature and control technologies. It covers both urban and rural pollution from runoff. Most other books on the subject are narrowly focused on one perspective, such as agronomic or economic. However this book provides an inter-disciplinary perspective, integrating information from agriculture, soil science, hydrology, law, environmental management and public policy, which will therefore serve as a text for a wide range of courses.
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