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Albert Einstein (1879-1955) said, 'The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all true art and science. ' For the last 30 years or so, activated low pressure diamond synthesis has been regarded as 'mysterious' or a 'thermodynamic paradox' perhaps 'violating the second law of thermodynamics'. A new field of thermodynamics, nonequilibrium nondissipative thermodynamics - has recently arisen from the puzzle. For complex systems including nonspontaneous reaction(s), the basic clas- sification of equilibrium thermodynamics and nonequilibrium thermodynam- ics on the basis of the second law of thermodynamics has to be changed or overthrown. Maybe we should also cite another statement of Albert Ein- stein: 'A theory is more impressive the greater the simplicity of its premises is, the more different kinds of things it relates, and the more extended its area of applicability. Therefore the deep impression which classical thermo- dynamics made upon me. It is the only physical theory of universal content concerning which I am convinced that, within the framework of the appli- cability of its basic concepts, it will never be overthrown. ' and it might be that classical thermodynamics would never be overthrown. However, thought Einstein said, 'it will never be overthrown' only 'within the framework of the application of its basic concepts'. This means that outside 'the frame- work of the application of its basic concepts' some basic points of view from classical thermodynamics might be overthrown or changed.
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