Marine environment in the Arabian Gulf is naturally stressed due to elevated levels of sea temperature and salinity. Discharges from desalination plants could pose additional threats to its fragile coastal and marine ecosystems. This book assesses the environmental impacts of two major desalination plants that use Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) and brackish water Reverse Osmosis (RO) technologies on macrobenthic assemblages inhabiting subtidal areas in Bahrain. Localized severe impacts on these assemblages were detected adjacent to the outlets that influenced by effluents characterized by high temperatures, salinities, and a range of chemical and heavy metal pollutants. The book also discusses measures to optimize impacts of desalination plants on marine ecosystems, including conducting holistic monitoring, applying EIA, enforcing relevant regulations and adopting strategic framework for water resource management. This book should be useful to professionals in fields of ecological and environmental studies, coastal and marine monitoring and conservation.
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