This book provides for the first time a single comprehensive source of information on the analytical chemistry of nicotine and related alkaloids. The editors have brought together scientists from academia and the tobacco industry to describe the state-of-the-art of the chemistry and analytical methods for measurement of nicotine. Both the scope and detail of the book are impressive. Chapters describe the history, pharmacology and toxicology of nicotine, the biosynthesis of nicotine and other alkaloids in the tobacco plant, the general chemistry of nicotine and the analytical methodologies that have been used to measure nicotine and related alkaloids in biological specimens, in tobacco and pharmaceutical products and in tobacco smoke. There is also a comprehensive review of the chemistry and toxicology of nicotine-derived nitrosamines, an important class of tobacco carcinogens.Supercritical fluids behave either like a gas or a liquid, depending on the values of thermodynamic properties. This tuning of properties, and other advantageous properties of supercritical fluids led to innovative technologies. More than 100 plants of production size are now in operation worldwide in the areas of process and production technology, environmental applications, and particle engineering. New processes are under research and development in various fields. This book provides an overview of the research activities in the field of Supercritical Fluids in Germany. It is based on the research program "Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media" on the initiative of the "GVC-Fachausschuss Hochdruckverfahrenstechnik" (i.e. the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers).This research program provided an immensely valuable platform for exchange of knowledge and experience. More than 50 young researchers were involved contributing with their expertise, their new ideas, and the motivation of youth. The results of this innovative research are described in this book.The book "Computational Error and Complexity in Science and Engineering" pervades all the science and engineering disciplines where computation occurs. Scientific and engineering computation happens to be the interface between the mathematical model/problem and the real world application. One needs to obtain good quality numerical values for any real-world implementation. Just mathematical quantities symbols are of no use to engineers/technologists. Computational complexity of the numerical method to solve the mathematical model, also computed along with the solution, on the other hand, will tell us how much computation/computational effort has been spent to achieve that quality of result. Anyone who wants the specified physical problem to be solved has every right to know the quality of the solution as well as the resources spent for the solution. The computed error as well as the complexity provide the scientific convincing answer to these questions. Specifically some of the disciplines in which the book will be readily useful are (i) Computational Mathematics, (ii) Applied Mathematics/Computational Engineering, Numerical and Computational Physics, Simulation and Modelling. Operations Research (both deterministic and stochastic), Computing Methodologies, Computer Applications, and Numerical Methods in Engineering.Key Features:- Describes precisely ready-to-use computational error and complexity- Includes simple easy-to-grasp examples wherever necessary.- Presents error and complexity in error-free, parallel, and probabilistic methods.- Discusses deterministic and probabilistic methods with error and complexity. - Points out the scope and limitation of mathematical error-bounds.- Provides a comprehensive up-to-date bibliography after each chapter.
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